Q.1 Define MIS? What are the objectives and characteristics of MIS?Ans
management information system
) is asystemor process whichprovides information needed to manage organizations effectively. Managementinformation systems are regarded to be a subset of the overallinternalcontrolsprocedures in a business, which cover the application of people,documents, technologies, and procedures bymanagement accountantsto solvebusiness problems such as costing a product, service or a business-widestrategy. Management information systems are distinct from regular informationsystems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied inoperational activities in the organization. Academically, the term is commonlyused to refer to the group of information management methods tied to theautomation or support of human decision making, e.g.Decision SupportSystems,Expert systems, andExecutive information systems.
At the start, in businesses and other organizations, internal reporting was mademanually and only periodically, as a by-product of the accounting system and withsome additional statistics, and gave limited and delayed information on management performance. Previously, data had to be separated individually by the people as per the requirement and necessity of the organization. Later, data was distinguishedfrom information, and instead of the collection of mass of data, important, and to the point data that is needed by the organization was stored.Early on, business computers were mostly used for relatively simple operations suchas tracking sales or payroll data, often without much detail. Over time theseapplications became more complex and began to store increasing amounts of information while also interlinking with previously
information systems.As more and more data was stored and linked man began to analyze this informationinto further detail, creating entire
from the raw, stored data.The term "MIS" arose to describe these kinds of applications, which were developedto provide managers with information about sales, inventories, and other data thatwould help in managing the enterprise. Today, the term is used broadly in a number of contexts and includes (but is not limited to):
people management applications
, project management and database retrieval application.An 'MIS' is a planned system of the collecting, processing, storing anddisseminating data in the form of information needed to carry out the functions of management. In a way it is a documented report of the activities that were plannedand executed.According to
A marketing information system consists of people,equipment, and procedures to gather, sort, analyze, evaluate, and distributeneeded, timely, and accurate information to marketing decision makers
are often confused. Information systemsinclude systems that are not intended for decision making. The area of study called
На этом Мидж капитулировала: - Хорошо. Доброй ночи. - Она двинулась к двери. Когда Мидж проходила мимо, Бринкерхофф по выражению ее глаз понял, что она и не думает сдаваться: чутье не позволит ей бездействовать.