Chicago Style Citation Essays

The Ultimate Guide to Citing Anything in Chicago Style

Everything you ever needed to know about citing sources from the Chicago Manual of Style

The Basics of Citing in Chicago Style

The Chicago Manual of Style, currently in its 16th edition, was created to help researchers properly cite their sources. There are two types of referencing styles in Chicago: 1). Notes and Bibliography and 2). Author-Date. This guide displays the Notes and Bibliography style of referencing.

Creating a Bibliography in Chicago Style

The bibliography is a list of all the sources used in the paper. The list includes the important publication details of the sources. The bibliography must also follow the following format:
  • The citation list or bibliography must be single spaced.
  • The last names of the authors must be arranged alphabetically.
  • The second line of the source must be indented.

Examples of Citing Different Sources in Chicago Style

Generally, Chicago citations require:
  • Author
  • Title of book/article
  • Title of newspaper/journal
  • Publication year
  • Publication month and date
  • Publisher
  • City of publication
  • Date of access
  • Page numbers
  • URL or DOI (for some online sources)

How to create footnotes and endnotes for Chicago Style

Chicago's Notes and Bibliography formatting requires writers to use footnotes and endnotes when using in-text citations. These footnotes and endnotes acknowledge the different sources used in the work. When a source is used in a research paper, a roman numeral is placed at the end of the borrowed information as superscript (it is smaller than the normal line of text and raised). That number correlates with a footnote or endnote.
  • Footnotes are found at the bottom of the page
  • Endnotes are added at the end of the chapter or project
  • A footnote or endnote contains the complete citation information.
  • The matching number in the footnote or endnote is normal sized and not raised.
  • It is up to the discretion of the writer to either place the citation at the bottom of the page where the superscript is placed (a footnote) or to place all citations together at the end of the work (endnotes).
Example: One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum? Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹ Footnote (placed at the bottom of the page) 1. Silver, Nate. "Beautiful Minds." The New York Times. July 13, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/14/books/review/the-boy-who-loved-math-and-on-a-beam-of-light.html?ref=books&_r=0. If a source is used more than once in a research project, follow these guidelines:
  • When used again, instead of writing out the complete citation for a second time in the footnote, only include: the author’s last name, the title or a phrase for the title (if it’s more than four words), and the page number(s) that were used. This will reduce the bulk of citation information in the paper.
Example: 1. Cohen, Micah, "Rubio is Losing Support Among Republican Voters." FiveThirtyEight. July 09, 2013. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/rubio-is-losing-support-among-republican-voters/ 2. Wolf, Leon H. "Marco Rubio's Campaign Must Adapt or Die." RedState. August 04, 2015. Accessed August 04, 2015. http://www.redstate.com/2015/08/04/marco-rubios-campaign-must-adapt-die/. 3. Cohen, "Rubio Losing Support" If a source is used consecutively, follow these guidelines:
  • When the same source is used consecutively, instead of typing in the citation information for a third time, use the abbreviation for ibidem: “Ibid.” Ibidem is a latin word that means “in the same place.” Add the page numbers immediately following.
  • If the same source AND same page number is used consecutively, simply write “Ibid.” Ibid. stands for the latin word, ibidem, which means "in the same place"
Example: 3. Rosnay, Tatiana De. Sarah's Key, 24-27. 4. Ibid., 44. 5. Ibid. 6. Ibid., 133-134. 7. Doerr, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See, 397-401. 8. Ibid., 405. 9. Ibid., 411. For further clarification on Notes and Bibliography citations, consult the Chicago Manual of Style's website.

Creating Your Citations in Chicago Style

As mentioned, when you're following The Chicago Manual of Style, you'll be required to create a list of all sources used on your paper. Even though full bibliographic information can be found in the footnotes and endnotes, it is still acceptable, and often required by instructors, to create a bibliography. The bibliography is placed at the end of an assignment.

How to Cite a Print Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book.

Example of Chicago Style for Books with One Author

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Staggs, Sam. Born to Be Hurt: The Untold Story of Imitation of Life.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

Example of Chicago Citation for Books with Multiple Authors

When citing e-books, include the URL or the DOI. The URL or DOI should be the last part of the citation. In the bibliography:

Shohat, Ella and Robert Stam. Unthinking Eurocentrism: Multiculturalism and the Media.

How to Cite Chapters or Articles from a Book in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Chapter Title." In Book Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Chapters in a Book

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Aymerich-Franch, Laura and Maddalena Fedele. "Student's Privacy Concerns on the Use of Social Media in Higher Education." In Cutting-Edge Technologies and Social Media Use in Higher Education,

How to Cite Online E-books in Chicago Style

When citing e-books, include the URL or the DOI. The URL or DOI should be the last part of the citation. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Book.

Example of Chicago Citation for E-Books

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Baker, Michael J. The Marketing Book.

How to Cite E-books in Chicago Style E-books from a Kindle or E-book Reader

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of book.

Example of Chicago Citation for Kindle or E-book Reader

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Bomann, Corina. The Moonlight Garden.

How to Cite Print Journals in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article," Journal Title Volume Number, No. of issue (Year): Page range.

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Journals

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

O'Brien, Damien, and Brian Fitzgerald, "Digital Copyright Law in a YouTube World." Internet Law Bulletin 9, no. 6 (2007): 71-74.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Database Journals in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Journal Title Volume Number, Issue No.(Year): Page range. doi or url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Database Journals

In the bibliography:

Schreiber, Trine. "Conceptualizing Students’ Written Assignments in the Context of Information Literacy and Schatzki’s Practice Theory." Journal of Documentation 70, no. 3(2014): 346-363. url: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/full/10.1108/JD-01-2013-0002.

How to Cite Print Magazines in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title." Magazine Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Print Magazines

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Church, George J. "Sunny Mood at Midsummer" Time,

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for books quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Online Magazines in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Article Title" Magazine Title,

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Magazines

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Gordon, Meryl. “Night of the Long Knives" New York,

How to Cite a Web Page in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Article or Page." Title of Website. Month Day, Year of Publication or last modification. url or doi.

Example of Chicago Citation for a Web Page

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Patel, Sujan. “15 Must-have Marketing Tools for 2015.” Entrepreneur. January 12, 2015. http://www.entrepreneur.com/article/241570.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for websites quickly and accurately.

How to Cite The Bible or Religious Texts in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title of Bible, Edition. ed. Vol. Number, City: Publisher, Year Published.

Example of Chicago Citation for Bible

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

The Holy Bible, King James Version, Philadelphia: National Publishing Company, 1997.

How to Cite Blogs in Chicago Style

*According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, blogs are not typically cited in bibliographies. They are cited in the footnotes/endnotes section. A frequently cited blog, however, may be included in the bibliography. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last Name, First Name, "Title of the Blog." Name of Blog Site,

Example of Chicago Citation for Blogs

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Miller, Shannon, "Valentine Ideas Using Digital Tools, Hands, Creativity, and a Little Love for Padlet." The Library Voice,

How to Cite Broadcasts in Chicago Style

*There is no official citation in the 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style for TV or radio broadcasts. Citation Machine has created this citation based on recommendations from librarians. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Name of TV or Radio Broadcast. "Title of Episode." Episode Number (if it's available). Directed by First name Last name. Written by First name Last name. Network name, Month Day Year of first air date.

Example of Chicago Citation for Broadcasts

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Essential Mix. “Eric Prydz and Jeremy Olander.” Hosted by Pete Tong. BBC Radio 1, January 1 2015.

How to Cite a Case Study in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Case Study.

Example of Chicago Citation for Case Study

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Finn, Peter. Disulfiram.

How to Cite Conference Proceedings in Chicago Style

If the conference paper was included in a published proceeding, cite it like a chapter in a book. If the conference paper was published in a journal, cite it the same way as a journal article.

How to Cite Court or Legal Cases in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, almost all legal works use notes for documentation and few use bibliographies. Any work cited in the text does not need to be listed in the bibliography. For that reason, only the footnotes and endnotes format and examples are included. In the footnotes and endnotes:

Example of Chicago Citation for Legal Cases

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How to Cite Dictionary and Encyclopedia Entries in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition, well-known reference books, including major dictionaries and encyclopedias, are normally cited in notes rather than bibliographies. Lesser known reference books can be cited in the bibliography. The abbreviation s.v. means sub verbo, which is latin for "under the word." In the footnotes and endnotes: If found online: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name of Author. Title of Dictionary or Encyclopedia.

Example of Chicago Citation for Dictionary Entries

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Gover, Emily. Encyclopedia of Birds.

How to Cite Dissertations in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Dissertation." Degree, School, Year. Database(Identification Number).

Example of Chicago Citation for Dissertations

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Kirschenbaum, Michele. "Young Students' Online Searching Capabilities." Master's thesis, Drexel University, 2009.

How to Cite DVDs, Video, and Film in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title. Directed by First name Last name. Publication Place: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Example of Chicago Citation for Film, DVDs, or Videos

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Home Alone. Directed by Chris Columbus. Los Angeles, CA: 20th Century Fox, 1990. DVD.

Don’t forget, Citation Machine allows you to generate Chicago citations for films quickly and accurately.

How to Cite Facebook Pages in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Title of Facebook Page. Accessed Month Day Year. url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Facebook Post

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Awakenings. Accessed February 15, 2016. https://www.facebook.com/awakenings/?fref=ts.

How to Cite Government Publications in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Firm/Department. Title of Publication.

Example of Chicago Citation for Government Publication

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Department of Justice. Audit of the Federal Bureau of Prisons Annual Financial Statements Fiscal Year 2014.

How to Cite Interviews in Chicago Style

Published Interviews are treated like an article in a magazine or a chapter in a book. Use one of those formats to cite your interview.

How to Cite an E-mail in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, personal communications, such as letters, e-mails, text messages, and phone calls are usually referenced in the footnotes and endnotes. They are rarely listed in the bibliography. In addition, an e-mail address belonging to an individual should be omitted, unless given permission by its owner. In the footnotes and endnotes:

Example of Chicago Citation for E-mail

How to Cite Musical Recordings in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name of performer. Title of Album,

Example of Chicago Citation for Recordings

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Tiesto. Club Life: Volume 4: New York City,

How to Cite Online Images or Videos in Chicago Style

Title of images are italicized. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography: Last name, First name. "Title of work." Creation Month Day Year. Website. url.

Example of Chicago Citation for Online Image or Videos

Title of images are italicized. Videos are placed in quotations. In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Pan Pot. "Awakenings Gashouder Carl Cox And Friends." March 30 2013. online video. YouTube. https://youtu.be/Jk3gGeFuX6A.

How to Cite Photographs in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last Name, First Name. Photograph Title.

Example of Chicago Citation for Photographs

In the footnotes and endnotes:

Liebling, Chris. May Day, New York. 1948. The Jewish Museum, New York City, NY.

How to Cite Plays in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. Title of Play.

Example of Chicago Citation for Play

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Manuel-Miranda, Lin. Hamilton.

How to Cite Podcasts in Chicago Style

When citing podcasts in Chicago Style, treat it as an article in a periodical or a chapter in a book. If found online, include the url.

How to Cite Poems in Chicago Style

When citing poes in Chicago Style, cite it as you would a chapter in a book.

How to Cite Presentations and Lectures in Chicago Style

In the footnotes and endnotes: In the bibliography:

Last name, First name. "Title of Lecture." Information about lecture including reason for lecture and meeting place, location, Month Day Year.

Example of Chicago Citation for Lecture

In the bibliography:

Chan, Danny. "Optimizing SEO." Lecture presented at General Assembly, New York, NY, June 8, 2015.

How to Cite Sheet Music in Chicago Style

According to the Chicago Manual of Style, 16th edition, cite sheet music the same way as you cite books.

Go to Notes and Bibliography Style

Go to Author-Date Style

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Chicago-style source citations come in two varieties: (1) notes and bibliography and (2) author-date. If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. If you are unsure about which system to use, read on.

Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?

The notes and bibliography system is preferred by many working in the humanities—including literature, history, and the arts. In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes. Each note corresponds to a raised (superscript) number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. The notes and bibliography system can accommodate a wide variety of sources, including unusual ones that don’t fit neatly into the author-date system.

The author-date system is more common in the sciences and social sciences. In this system, sources are briefly cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by author’s last name and year of publication. Each in-text citation matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided.

Aside from the use of numbered notes versus parenthetical references in the text, the two systems share a similar style. Follow the links at the top of this page to see examples of some of the more common source types cited in both systems.

Most authors choose the system used by others in their field or required by their publisher. Students who are unsure of which system to use will find more information here.

For a more comprehensive look at Chicago’s two systems of source citation and many more examples, see chapters 14 and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

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