Examining Swanson's Theory Of Caring Essay
Examining the Theory of Caring
Swanson's (1993) Theory of Caring is structured around five principles that encompass the overall definition of caring in nursing practice. This theory states that caring revolves around five categories: knowing, being with, doing for, enabling, and maintaining belief. When applied to nursing practice, each of these five categories can fuel the caregiver's attitude and improve overall patient well-being. In nursing, as well as other areas caring can be defined as, "a nurturing way of relating to a valued other toward whom one feels a personal sense of commitment and responsibility'. Upon examination, the five processes of Swanson's Theory of Caring can be used in nursing practice to achieve an enhanced one-on-one relationship with patients, and improve overall patient well-being.
The first caring process of the Theory of Caring is 'knowing'. As it applies to this theory, knowing is defined as "striving to understand an event as it has meaning in the life of the other" (Swanson, 1991 pp. 163). This category of caring enables the nursing professional to not make assumptions about any specific patient, center the patient being cared for, and conduct thorough assessments of a particular patient (Swanson, 1991). Since no two patients, needs or cases are the same, obtaining an understanding of the significance of each patients experience with sickness or disease sets the nurse or caregiver up for establishing a one-on-one relationship with each patient. Through knowing, nurses can identify with patients' wishes, and personal desires to be understood in difficult situations (Jansson, 2011). A knowing caregiver is skilled in such areas as providing empathy and being understanding in each situation (Jansson, 2011).
The second caring process is 'being with'. This is defined as "being emotionally present to the other" (Swanson, 1991). Part of the caregiver or nurse's duty is to provide emotional support and understanding to the patient. Swanson (1993) proclaims that being with assures patients that their reality is appreciated and that the nurse is ready and willing to provide emotional support. Emotional support can come in many forms, such as providing a shoulder to lean on and listening attentively. By using the process of 'being with', nursing professionals can convey messages such as, "you are not alone, what happens to you matters and that we are here for you" (Swanson, 1993). Conveying these messages can help with the healing process and overall well-being of the patient by decreasing anxiety and providing the patient with a caring relationship when family support is unavailable.
The third caring process is 'doing for'. According to Swanson (1991) 'doing for' is simply put as doing for another what they would do for themselves if at all possible. In a nursing or caregiver aspect, doing for may include comforting the patient, anticipating needs,...
Loading: Checking Spelling0%
Concept Comparison and Analysis1758 words - 7 pages Concept Comparison and Analysis Across Theories Nursing is a science that has many theories to support the beliefs and clinical practice of the profession. One core concept prevalent in many nursing theories is caring. Theorist Jean Watson and Madeleine...
What is the culture diversity? Essay629 words - 3 pages What is the culture diversity? Before the class, I thought the culture diversity was the synonym of ethnicity and race. People have different color, tradition, language, custom and religion. However, after this class, I know the culture diversity is the difference not only in ethnicity and race but also in basic beliefs, values, lifestyle and even sexual practice in groups of people who can be different ethnic or the same ethnic. I am an...
nursing theory1053 words - 4 pages The term nursing theory defines the body of knowledge given to specific aspects in the nursing profession. There are many theories that range from practice theories, mid-range theories, to grand theories. A theory refers to a group of related concepts, definitions, and statements that describe a certain phenomena from which to describe explain or predict outcomes. (Barnum) The theory guides the professional nurse in making clinical judgments...
Managing Diversity: Women at work575 words - 2 pages Introduction:Gender equality in work place has still not found wide spread acceptability. In general, people are genuinely surprised to encounter a female mechanic or a female bus driver Tharenou (1998) reports finding that because "women are stereotyped as unsuitable for executive roles, do not fit into male dominated organisational cultures and do not have the networks needed, they have few opportunities to advance".Gender...
Jean Watson's Nursing Theorya nd Philosophy2224 words - 9 pages One of the most influential and widely accepted nursing theorist of today is Jean Watson. Her nursing theory Philosophy and Theory of Transpersonal Caring was developed to help foster the caring compassionate side of nurses. The theory is focused around ten carative factors and transpersonal healing and caring relationships. “We are the light in institutional darkness, and in this model we get to return to the light of our humanity” (Alligood...
Ethics of Care (Carol Gilligan) Morality & Justice (Kohlberg) The Language of Experience and Development of Relationship1040 words - 4 pages The Language of Experience and Development of RelationshipIn a Different Voice, by Carol Gilligan, she begins to distinguish between two different modes of moral understanding and two modes of describing the relationship between others and the self. She had noticed the absence of women's voices in previous studies on moral development that focused...
Response to Richard Kraut’s Desire and the Human Good1929 words - 8 pages In his paper Desire and the Human Good, Richard Kraut argues that the typical defense for pluralism, Desire Satisfaction Theory, is too weak; subsequently Kraut offers his own alternative. In this paper I will explain Desire Satisfaction Theory as Kraut opposes it, defend the objections made by Kraut against Desire Satisfaction Theory, and evaluate his alternative theory. In ancient greek philosophies such as platonic, aristotelian, stoic and...
A Quantitative Approach to Evaluating Caring in Nursing Simulation1427 words - 6 pages Clarification of the research question is at the end of the opening section and states that the study was “designed to evaluate the use of a quantitative instrument to measure caring in the nursing simulation environment.” This question is consistent with the problem statement of evaluating the correlation between caring and nursing simulations. Ethical Considerations All participants in this study were fully aware that the study was to be...
Quality Caring Model2309 words - 9 pages Case Study 2: Joanne Duffy’s Quality Caring Model© Safe labor and delivery is dependent on successful interaction of the four P’s; one of these P’s represents psyche. Psyche refers to “a woman’s emotional structure that can determine her entire response to labor and influence physiological and psychological functioning” (Silvestri, 2011, p. 298). Anxiety and fear are two common emotions experienced by women in labor, especially first time...
Caring Paper1463 words - 6 pages In reviewing the article Thanks to Jesse by Pamela Davies, the author clearly demonstrates the concept of caring as it applies to the nursing profession. Caring is defined as “a relationship that transcends all other human relationships, and reflects the fact that we share a greater purpose than just serving ourselves in a material universe” (Hawthorne & Yurkovich, 2005). The article clearly shows how a caring relationship between the child,...
Middle Range Theories in The Nursing Literature2483 words - 10 pages Review Middle Range Theories in the Nursing Literature In order to understand middle range theories, a practical knowledge of the definition should be achieved before attempting to applying to concepts or classifications to the models. Middle range theories are defined as, theories that are fundamentally individual while incorporating a controlled amount of assumptions furthermore, having a limited characteristic of reality. These concepts...
Caring is a simple yet strong and powerful word, an abstract concept commonly found in nursing theory. Caring implies responsibilities, connections, and trust. Nurses take on the role with pride and honor. Nurses are caregivers. Many nursing theorists looked and still do look at caring as a core concept for nursing practice. Three main theorists come to mind, Jean Watson, Patricia Benner, and Kristen Swanson, when thinking about nursing and caring, although many of theorists highlight the importance of caring in the nursing profession. Each theorist has an independent definition of what caring is, ways to use it in nursing, and what it means in the nursing world. The purpose of this paper is to examine the definition of caring through nursing and nursing theorists, compare different definitions based on the core concept of caring, analyze Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, and examine the current relevance in nursing practice, research, and development.
Definition of Caring
The Oxford English Dictionary defines caring as “to take thought for, provide for, look after” (“Care,” 2011, para. 3). Theorists look at the concept of caring and break it down to discover the exact meaning behind the abstract concept. Kristen Swanson developed a middle-range theory of caring based on maternity and early loss of pregnancy. Middle-range theories “have a high explanatory value” (Andershed & Olsson, 2009, p. 598). Swanson’s researches lead her to the discovery of what caring means. Swanson described caring as an accountability and connection to another person (Andershed & Olsson, 2009).Patricia Benner is more well-known for theory of Novice to Expert Nursing. Through her research she began to look at the common phenomena surrounding nursing. Patricia Benner worked with Judith Wruble on the theory Primacy of Caring, an attempt to unveil certain factors such as nursing practice, stress, coping, and the outcome of illness (George, 2011).
One of the core phenomena surrounding nursing practice is the concept of caring. Benner defined caring as “an essential skill of nurses; a basic way of being in the world” (George, 2011, p. 662). Benner’s definition offers little in respect a more concrete understanding. Other theorists who attempt to define the abstract concept include Boykin and Schoenhofer, Florence Nightingale, and Virginia Henderson. The leading lady in theory on caring is Jean Watson. The ethics of caring is the foundation for Jean Watson’s theory. Watson defines caring as “the coming together of a nurse and another in human-to-human transaction” (George, 2011, p. 662). Her theory offers more definition to the concept of caring and what caring within nursing entails.
All of the aforementioned definitions have a similarity in the way humans are part of the caring. Each looks at the value placed on an individual and the holistic approach to that individual (Bailey, 2009). The concept of caring does not look at one specific attribute of humans, but the person. Each theorist took the concept of caring and established the caring as a fundamental and integral part of nursing. Watson looked at caring as a relation-ship between two humans. Swanson’s approach was the effect caring had on a certain population. Swanson’s efforts were to bring back to nursing practice the care that originally attracted most nurses (Watson, 2009). Benner’s concept derived from the skills necessary for nursing. Benner’s previous theory of novice to expert goal was to explain the progress of a novice nurse to an expert nurse using knowledge and experience to provide care. Bailey (2009) broke down the variety of caring definitions and discovered the essentialness of caring for the 21st century nurse. Each theorist takes caring and applies it to how nursing functions with a person in a holistic and comprehensive manner.
Jean Watson, born in 1940, developed the theory of caring and published it in 1988 with a revision in 1997. As a contemporary nursing theorist, she garnered respect from some of the most notable theorists such as Nightingale, Henderson, and Benner. Watson has received honorary doctorate degrees, received numerous rewards, and still educates at the University of Colorado Denver. The base of Watson’s theory is the ethics and moral values placed on a person, not necessarily on patients. Watson’s concept is the need to preserve the dignity of the whole person through care and respect (Bailey, 2009). The care and respect Dr. Watson refers to is the connection the nurse makes with the patient and the family. The respect she refers to belongs also to that connection. Metaparadigms are world views.
Nursing theory tends to center on four key concepts, person, environment, health, and nursing as metaparadigms. Watson’s theory of caring centers on the person, or persons, affected by the nursing care provided. In 2010, Dr. Watson gave a thrilling and emotional speech about the nursing care her father, mother, and stepmother experienced. The speech centered on the care and compassion provided by the nurses encountered (Fights, 2010). The story accurately depicts Jean Watson’s concentration on the metaparadigms of person and nursing. Her very moving story led to the Academy of Medical Surgical Nursing to adopt three words to define the medical-surgical nurse; compassion, connection, commitment (Fights, 2010).
Application in Current Nursing
The concepts and theories provided by Dr. Jean Watson still thrive in current nursing curriculum and practice. The United States faces one of the largest health care issues and reforms. Nursing shortages and increased expenditure on health care has caused the nation to look at ways to transform the current health care setting into a more profitable business. Jean Watson believes this happens through reinforcing the Theory of Human Caring throughout the health care field (Watson, 2009). Part of Watson’s theory is the 10 factors of caring The first three factors of caring make up the philosophy of Jean Watson. The concept behind the philosophy of caring is to practice in a caring model and not a curing model. Jean placed a large amount a value on the need for humanistic and altruistic care, the instillation of hope and faith in care, and sensitivity to the nurse and the patient receiving care (Nursing Theories, 2011).
Current practice of the Caring Model presented by Watson includes Central Baptist Health in Lexington, KY., St. Mary’s Hospital in Richmond, VA., and Scottsdale Health Care in Scottsdale, AZ., and many others. Government health care reform has provided health care systems to look at the satisfaction of the patient and family in relationship to reimbursement. This is an attempt to cutting health care costs nationwide. The result is patient and family-centered theories that guide evidence-based practice Jean Watson’s theory is ideal for the transformation.
Johanna Briggs Institute
Research has a focus of evidence-based practices. The Johanna Briggs Institute provides sound and peer reviewed information to those knowing where to look. In researching the theory of caring, the application to current health settings is not always spelled out. In an evidence-based practice sheet produced by the Johanna Briggs Institute on stroke victims, there is a clear representation of Watson’s theory. The evidence demonstrates the need to understand the psychosocial spiritual experiences of stroke victims during the recovery process (Johanna Briggs Institute, 2009). Watson’s theory has an element that takes into account the human experience of the spirit instead of the spiritual experience of the human (Nursing Theories, 2011). Nurses need to look at a patient and what he or she is experiencing to gain the connection with the person and family and also demonstrate the commitment and compassion for what the patient and family is experiencing.
Many theorists take into account necessity of caring for a patient. Benner, Henderson, Swanson, and Watson all developed theories and philosophies based on the core concept of caring and providing care in the nursing world. Although all theories are part of current curriculum and many appeal to the contemporary nurse, Watson’s theory has stood the test of time and has been resilient even during hard economic times and reform. The 10 factors of caring of the caring philosophy govern the way a nurse practices and looks at a patient. The spiritual experiences of a patient transformed into a deep connection between the nurse and patient. Reform has pushed systems to re-evaluate the way providers deliver health care and the perception of nursing care based on that care. Systems use financial incentives to create change. Evidence-based research uses Watson’s theory and definition of caring to provide background and support. Watson’s definition broadens the scope of nursing and includes the holistic approach to all nursing realms.
Andershed, B., & Olsson, K. (2009, September). Review of research related to Kristen Swanson’s middle-range theory of caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring of Caring Sciences, 23(3), 598-610.
doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00647.x Bailey, D. N. (2009, March). Caring defined: A comparison and anlysis. International Journal of Human Caring, 13(1), 16-31. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ehost/detail?vid=10&hid=11&sid=157942a0-9e5e-4c79-8ebc-b532097da582%40sessionmgr11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=rzh&AN=2010235968 Fights, S. D. (2010). from AMSN, Commitment, compassion, connection. MEDSURG Nursing, 19(6), 313-316. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ehost/detail?sid=157942a0-9e5e-4c79-8ebc-b532097da582%40sessionmgr11&vid=24&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=a9h&AN=56601234 George, J. (2011). Nursing Theories: The base for professional nursing practice (6th ed.). Boston, AK: Pearson. Johanna Briggs Institute. (2009). The psychosocial spiritual experience of elderly. Retrieved from http://connect.jbiconnectplus.org/ViewSourceFile.aspx?0=503 Nursing Theories. (2011, June 21). Jean Watson’s philosophy of nursing. Retrieved from http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html Watson, J. (2009, March). Caring science and human caring theory: transforming personal and professional practices of nursing and health care. Journal of Health and Human Services Administration, 31(4), 466-482. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/ehost/detail?sid=157942a0-9e5e-4c79-8ebc-b532097da582%40sessionmgr11&vid=45&hid=11&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=mnh&AN=19385422